Chapter 4: The Universe: of mathematical Design
Physical laws and their fundamental constants rule the whole physical universe, from the tiny radiation-wave to the mighty cluster of galaxies. Which kinds of physical laws are there? Why are there physical laws? Why does one need them? And what do they do? How precise are they? And what does one need, to make them? What would happen, if their numerical values were a little different? Can physical laws arise by themselves, through chance?
British physicist James Jeans: "Wave-mechanics reduces the whole universe to systems of waves. Electrons and protons consisted of waves of one kind, radiation of waves of a different kind. Matter and radiation may not constitute two distinct and non-interchangeable forms of waves. The two may be interchangeable, one passing into the other as the chrysalis passes into the butterfly...
"This does not mean that matter and radiation are the same thing, ...we may come fairly near to the truth if we think of matter and radiation as two kinds of waves - a kind which goes round and round in circles, and a kind which travels in straight lines. The latter waves of course travel with the velocity of light, but those which constitute matter travel more slowly. ... this may express the whole difference between matter and radiation, matter being nothing but a sort of congealed radiation travelling at less than its normal speed." - Jeans, J. (1945:69).
"The wave-length of a moving particle depends on its speed. The dependence is such that a particle travelling with the speed of light would have precisely the same wave-length as a photon of equal mass. This remarkable fact, as well as others, goes a long way towards suggesting that radiation may ultimately prove to be merely matter moving with the speed of light, and matter to be radiation moving with a speed less than that of light. ...
"The tendency of modern physics is to resolve the whole material universe into waves, and nothing but waves. These waves are of two kinds: bottled-up waves, which we call matter, and unbottled waves, which we call radiation or light. The process of annihilation of matter is merely that of unbottling imprisoned wave-energy and setting it free to travel through space. These concepts reduce the whole universe to a world of radiation, potential or existent, and it no longer seems surprising that fundamental particles of which matter is built would exhibit many of the properties of waves." - Jeans, J. (1945:69).
"Photographs ... bear witness that waves of definite wave-length are somehow fundamental in nature’s scheme. These waves form the fundamental concept of the wave-mechanics... It is true, in a sense somewhat different from that intended by Galileo, that ‘Nature’s great book is written in mathematical language.’ So true is it that no one except a mathematician need ever hope fully to understand those branches of science which try to unravel the fundamental nature of the universe - the theory of relativity, the theory of quanta and the wave-mechanics." - Jeans, J. (1945:110-112).
What do you mean by that?
Sir James Jeans: "To drop our metaphor, nature seems very conversant with the rules of pure mathematics, as our mathematicians have formulated them in their studies, out of their own inner consciousness and without drawing to any appreciable extent on their experience of the outer world. By ‘pure mathematics’ is meant those departments of mathematics which are creations of pure thought, of reason operating solely within her own sphere, as contrasted with ‘applied mathematics’ which reasons about the external world, after first taking some supposed property of the external world as its raw material." - Jeans, J. (1945:113, 114).
"In the same way, a scientific study of the action of the universe has suggested a conclusion which may be summed up, though very crudely and quite inadequately, because we have no language at our command except that derived from our terrestrial concepts and experiences, in the statement that the universe appears to have been designed by a pure mathematician.
"On the other hand, our efforts to interpret nature in terms of the concepts of pure mathematics have, so far, proved brilliantly successful. It would now seem to be beyond any dispute that in some way nature is more closely allied to the concepts of pure mathematics than to those of biology and of engineering, and even if the mathematical interpretation is only a third man-made mold, it at least fits objective nature incomparably better than the two previously tried." - Jeans, J. (1945:115-117).
The Universe: of mathematical Design
Not through blind chance, but through mathematical design, the material universe has arisen. Mathematical design always comes from the mind of an intelligent person. What scientific proof is there?
Prof. James Jean: It is not surprising "that nature should be found to work according to the laws of pure mathematics. It cannot of course be denied that some of the concepts with which the pure mathematician works are taken direct from his experience of nature. An obvious instance is the concept of quantity, but this is so fundamental that it is hard to imagine any scheme of nature from which it was entirely excluded.
"This remains true whether our minds impress their laws on nature, or she impresses her laws on us, and provides a sufficient justification for thinking of the universe as being of mathematical design. Lapsing back again into our crudely anthropomorphic language we have already used, we may say that we have already considered with disfavour the possibility of the universe having been planned by a biologist or an engineer; from the intrinsic evidence of his creation, the Great Architect of the Universe now begins to appear as a pure mathematician. The terrestrial pure mathematician does not concern himself with material substance, but with pure thought. His creations are not only created by thought, but consist of thought, just as the creation of the engineer consists of engines." - Jeans, J. (1945:121, 122).
"To my mind, the laws which nature obeys are less suggestive of those which a machine obeys in is motions, than of those which a musician obeys in writing a fugue, or a poet composing a sonnet. The motions of electrons and atoms do not resemble those of the parts of a locomotive so much as those of the dancer in a cotillion. ... If all this is so, then the universe can best be pictured, although still very imperfectly and inadequately, as consisting of pure thought, the thought of what, for want of a wider word, we must describe as a mathematical thinker." (1945:124).
What do you conclude from this?
Sir James Jeans: "This concept of the universe as a world of pure thought throws a new light on many of the situations we have encountered in our survey of modern physics. ... We can also see why energy, the fundamental entity of the universe, had again to be treated as a mathematical abstraction - the constant of integration of a differential equation. In the same way, we need not discuss whether the wave-system of a group of electrons exists in a three-dimensional space, or in a many-dimensional space, or not at all. It exists in a mathematical formula; this, and nothing else, expresses the ultimate reality, and we can picture it as representing waves in three, six, or more dimensions, whenever we so please." (1945:129, 131).
"If the universe is a universe of thought, then its creation must have been an act of thought. Indeed the finiteness of time and space almost compel us, of themselves, to picture the creation as an act of thought; the determination of the constants, such as the radius of the universe and the number of electrons it contained, imply thought, whose richness is measured of the immensity of these quantities. Time and space, which form the setting for the thought, must have come into being as part of this act. Primitive cosmologies pictured a creator working in space and time, forming sun, moon and stars out of already existing raw material. Modern scientific theory compels us to think of the creator working outside time and space, which are part of his creation, just as the artist is outside his canvas." - Jeans, J. (1945:134).
"And yet, so little do we understand time that perhaps we ought to compare the whole of time to the act of creation, the materialization of the thought. ... the universe begins to look more like a great thought, than like a great machine. Mind no longer appears as an accidental intruder into the realm of matter. We are beginning to suspect that we ought rather to hail it as the creator and governor of the realm of matter - not of course our individual minds, but the mind, in which the atoms, out of which our individual minds have grown, exist as thoughts." (1945:134, 137).
"We discover that the universe shows evidence of a designing or controlling power that has something in common with our individual minds - not, as far as we have discovered, emotion, morality, or aesthetic appreciation, but the tendency to think in the way, which, for want of a better word, we describe as mathematical." - Jeans, J. (1945:137, 138).
The British theoretical physicist and Professor of Astronomy, Sir Fred Hoyle writes: "The origin of the Universe, like the solution of the Rubric cube, requires intelligence. ... it was discovered that all kinds of atoms, the whole hundred or more of them, are constructed from just three particles - electrons, protons and neutrons. These are not particles in the everyday sense of the word, like specks of dust, but mathematical particles, entities whose properties can be calculated with precision, the modern idea being not so much to say what a particle is as to specify what it does, and to do so exactly.
"Thus the differences between an electron, a proton and a neutron are not rather vague like the differences in the appearances of people. The differences lie in what the electron, the proton, and the neutron actually do, in their explicit form of behaviour." (1983:1989, 191).
Our material world is made from two basic types of waves: (1) The radiation-wave (or light-wave) moving in a straight line with the speed of light, and (2) the material wave (or rest-mass-wav) moving slower in a circle. The real origin of our universe, of its matter and energy, of its atoms, particles, and waves, is highest mathematics, is thinking. It takes at least the mind of a human being, trained as a physicist and mathematician, to understand the high mathematics, contained in physics. An ape or an "ordinary" person cannot do that. Man has only found the physical laws. He has not made them. They have been there already long before him.
Physical laws, based on highest mathematics, existing independently of man, rule the material world. Where there is mathematics, there must be someone, who has thought out this mathematics. Where there is a thought, there must first be someone, who has thought this thought. Where there is a law, there must first be someone, who gave this law. The Creator, who has thought out and made our material world, with its matter, energy, and physical laws, exists outside of (and above) the time and space of our physical world, just as a painter is outside his painting.
Physics has begun some 10 to 15 billion years ago, when our physical world was born, when the first interacting wave/particle appeared. With this first wave/particle, also the time and space of our universe arose. Before that, our universe did not exist yet. Before physics, there is metaphysics. Before our physical world began, there was (and still is) the metaphysical world: the spiritual heavens.